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Afghanistan formally the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South Asia and Central Asia. It's a population of around 31 million people, making it the 42nd most populous nation on the planet. It's bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and China in the far northeast. Its land covers 652,000 km2 (252,000 sq mi), making it the 41st greatest nation in the world.

Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, as well as it was linked by the nation's strategic place along the Silk Road to the cultures of Central Asia, the Middle East, and South Asia. Through the ages the land has been home by Western powers and seen many military campaigns by Alexander the Great, Arab Muslims, Genghis Khan, and in the modern era to various individuals. The land also functioned as a source from which others, and the Shinwaris, Kushans, Hephthalites, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khiljis, Mughals, Durranis have risen to form important conglomerates.

In 2010, US and Afghan government officials estimated that untapped mineral deposits are worth between $900 bn and $3 trillion.